Causes of conductivity[ edit ] See also: Band theory Filling of the electronic states in various types of materials at equilibrium. Here, height is energy while width is the density of available states for a certain energy in the material listed. In metals and semimetals the Fermi level EF lies inside at least one band.
Physics for Kids Electrical Conductors and Insulators Some materials allow electric current to flow more freely than others.
These materials are called conductors. Other materials are resistant to the flow of electric current. These materials are called insulators. Conductors and insulators are both important in the field of electronics.
Electrical Conductors Electrical conductors allow electric current to flow easily because of the make up of their atoms. In a conductor, the outer electrons of the atom are loosely bound and can freely move through the material when an electric charge is applied.
Conductive Materials In general, the best electrical conductors are metals. Metals tend to have electrons in the outer layer of their atoms that are freely Electrical conductors. The most conductive of all the elements is silver.
Unfortunately, silver is too rare and expensive to use Electrical conductors most electrical equipment. Today, the most commonly used electrical conductor is copper.
Copper is used in electrical wiring and electrical circuits throughout the world. Conductance and Resistance Another way to think of conductance is as the opposite of resistance.
The resistance of a material is a measurement of how well a material opposes the flow of electric current. Sometimes conductance is represented by the letter "G" where G is the inverse of resistance, R.
It has an electrical resistance of zero. All of the superconductors that have been discovered by scientists to date require a very cold temperature on the order of minus degrees C in order to become superconductors.
Electrical Insulators The opposite of a conductor is an insulator. An insulator opposes the flow of electricity. Insulators are important to keep us safe from electricity. The wire that carries electricity to your computer or television is covered with a rubber-like insulator that protects you from getting electrocuted.
Good insulators include glass, the air, and paper. Semiconductors Some materials behave in between a conductor and an insulator. These materials are called semiconductors.
Semiconductors are important in electronics such as computers and mobile phones because their conductivity can be controlled allowing for current to flow in just one direction or only under certain circumstances. The most commonly used semiconductor in electronics today is silicon.
Interesting Facts about Electrical Conductors and Insulators Most good electrical conductors are also good conductors of heat. Temperature can play an important role in the conductance of a material.
In general, the higher the temperature the lower the conductivity as resistance increases with temperature. Aluminum has a lower conductivity than copper, but is sometimes used in wiring for lower cost.
Many electronics companies are headquartered in "Silicon Valley", California, which is nicknamed after the semiconductor silicon. Activities Take a ten question quiz about this page.An electrical conductor is a substance in which electrical charge carriers, usually electrons, move easily from atom to atom with the application of voltage.
Some materials let electricity pass through them easily. These materials are known as electrical conductors. Metal is used in plugs to allow electricity to transfer from the wall socket, through.
Examples of Conductors and Insulators Examples of conductors include metals, aqueous solutions of salts (i.e., ionic compounds dissolved in water), graphite, and the human body.
Examples of insulators include plastics, Styrofoam, paper, rubber, glass and dry air. Conductors and Insulators In a conductor, electric current can flow freely, in an insulator it cannot.
Metals such as copper typify conductors, while most non-metallic solids are said to be good insulators, having extremely high resistance to the flow of charge through them. Electrical Conductors Electrical conductors allow electric current to flow easily because of the make up of their atoms.
In a conductor, the outer electrons of the atom are loosely bound and can freely move through the material when an electric charge is applied. The Structure of Matter Neutral vs.
Charged Objects Charge Interactions Conductors and Insulators Polarization The behavior of an object that has been charged is dependent upon whether the object is made of a conductive or a nonconductive material. Conductors are materials that permit electrons to.