Bowl with Kufic Calligraphy10th century. Brooklyn Museum Kufic is the oldest form of the Arabic script. The style emphasizes rigid and angular strokes, which appears as a modified form of the old Nabataean script. The Archaic Kufi consisted of about 17 letters without diacritic dots or accents.
It belongs to the Semitic group of languages which also includes Hebrew and Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia.
There are many Arabic dialects. An adapted form of this, known as Modern Standard Arabic, is used in books, newspapers, on television and radio, in the mosques, and in conversation between educated Arabs from different countries for example at international conferences.
Local dialects vary considerably, and a Moroccan might have difficulty understanding an Iraqi, even though they speak the same language. Arabic is not the only language spoken in Arab countries. The two main minority languages.
Other rankings have placed Arabic anywhere between third and seventh. One of the difficulties is that it is almost impossible to compile accurate data. There are also debates among linguists about how to define "speakers" of a language, and speakers of "Arabic" in particular.
Many Arabs, for example, are not proficient in Modern Standard Arabic. The complexities are discussed further in an article by George Weber. The Arabic alphabet Arabic is written from right to left. There are 18 distinct letter shapes, which vary slightly depending on whether they are connected to another letter before or after them.
There are no "capital" letters. The full alphabet of 28 letters is created by placing various combinations of dots above or below some of these shapes. An animated version of the alphabet shows the correct way to move the pen.
The three long vowels are included in written words but the three short vowels are normally omitted — though they can be indicated by marks above and below other letters. For more about reading and writing Arabic, see: Learning the alphabet Although the Arabic alphabet as we know it today appears highly distinctive, the Latin, Greek, Phoenician, Aramaic, Nabatian alphabets probably share some common ancestry.
Other languages — such as Persian, Urdu and Malay — use adaptations of the Arabic script. The numerals used in most parts of the world — 1, 2, 3, etc — were originally Arabic, though many Arab countries use Hindi numerals. The following four lessons part of the Babel course give a fair idea of what is involved in learning to read and write Arabic:Iraqi master calligrapher Hassan Massoudy uses Arabic calligraphy to convey universal messages and wisdom from both East and West.
Links to websites where you can download fonts for many different alphabet and writing systems. Introduction to Arabic Arabic is usually ranked among the top six of the world's major languages.
As the language of the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, it is also widely used throughout the Muslim world.
It belongs to the Semitic group of languages which also includes Hebrew and Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia. There are many Arabic .
Arabic and the Roman alphabet The writing of Arabic words in English texts presents a number of difficulties, even for those who are familiar with both languages. In , when T E Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") sent his ,word manuscript of Revolt in the Desert to be typeset, a sharp-eyed proof-reader spotted that it was "full of .
A brief survey of calligraphy on coins explores a field of islamic art which is hardly known although often admired, and commentary is sometimes given on the calligraphy of single issues. The art of writing on coins established itself at the moment when the Qur'anic message became an iconic symbol of Islam and its empire.
Hassan MASSOUDY was born in in Najef, South of Iraq. He grew up amid the scalding heat of the desert, in a traditional Iraqi society characterised by strong religious beliefs, a high sense of solidarity and a keenness for festive gatherings.