Just as your mother may have told you to never talk to strangers, the same advice holds true for the virtual world. You may know to be wary of giving strangers your business bank account details. Cybercriminals use many different methods to lure you into parting with your confidential personal or business information. As a small company doing business on the web, you need to be aware of these methods so you can be extra vigilant when online.
High Discussion Your software is often the bridge between an outsider on the network and the internals of your operating system. When you invoke another program on the operating system, but you allow untrusted inputs to be fed into the command string that you generate for executing that program, then you are inviting attackers to cross that bridge into a land of riches by executing their own commands instead of yours.
Prevention and Mitigations Architecture and Design If at all possible, use library calls rather than external processes to recreate the desired functionality. Architecture and Design, Operation Run your code in a "jail" or similar sandbox environment that enforces strict boundaries between the process and the operating system.
This may effectively restrict which files can be accessed in a particular directory or which commands can be executed by your software. In general, managed code may provide some protection. FilePermission in the Java SecurityManager allows you to specify restrictions on file operations.
This may not be a feasible solution, and it only limits the impact to the operating system; the rest of your application may still be subject to compromise. Be careful to avoid CWE and other weaknesses related to jails.
The effectiveness of this mitigation depends on the prevention capabilities of the specific sandbox or jail being used and might only help to reduce the scope of an attack, such as restricting the attacker to certain system calls or limiting the portion of the file system that can be accessed.
Architecture and Design For any data that will be used to generate a command to be executed, keep as much of that data out of external control as possible. For example, in web applications, this may require storing the data locally in the session's state instead of sending it out to the client The most common methods to protect computer data a hidden form field.
Architecture and Design For any security checks that are performed on the client side, ensure that these checks are duplicated on the server side, in order to avoid CWE Attackers can bypass the client-side checks by modifying values after the checks have been performed, or by changing the client to remove the client-side checks entirely.
Then, these modified values would be submitted to the server. Architecture and Design Use a vetted library or framework that does not allow this weakness to occur or provides constructs that make this weakness easier to avoid.
These will help the programmer encode outputs in a manner less prone to error. Implementation If you need to use dynamically-generated query strings or commands in spite of the risk, properly quote arguments and escape any special characters within those arguments.
The most conservative approach is to escape or filter all characters that do not pass an extremely strict whitelist such as everything that is not alphanumeric or white space. Be careful of argument injection CWE Implementation If the program to be executed allows arguments to be specified within an input file or from standard input, then consider using that mode to pass arguments instead of the command line.
Architecture and Design If available, use structured mechanisms that automatically enforce the separation between data and code. These mechanisms may be able to provide the relevant quoting, encoding, and validation automatically, instead of relying on the developer to provide this capability at every point where output is generated.
Some languages offer multiple functions that can be used to invoke commands. Where possible, identify any function that invokes a command shell using a single string, and replace it with a function that requires individual arguments. These functions typically perform appropriate quoting and filtering of arguments.
Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL) 6 Methods of data collection and analysis Keywords: Qualitative methods, quantitative methods. The 10 most common security threats explained. Michael Sanchez December 9, Cybercriminals use many different methods to lure you into parting with your confidential personal or business information. or delete data on your computer—even erasing everything on your hard drive. A virus could also use other programs like your email. Next Generation Aspiration Detection. In the most demanding applications, where business efficiency relies on maximum uptime and enhanced safety, installing a fire detection solution that can offer the highest level of accuracy and stability is critical.
For example, in C, the system function accepts a string that contains the entire command to be executed, whereas execlexecveand others require an array of strings, one for each argument. In Windows, CreateProcess only accepts one command at a time. In Perl, if system is provided with an array of arguments, then it will quote each of the arguments.
Implementation Assume all input is malicious. Use an "accept known good" input validation strategy, i. Reject any input that does not strictly conform to specifications, or transform it into something that does.
Do not rely exclusively on looking for malicious or malformed inputs i. However, blacklists can be useful for detecting potential attacks or determining which inputs are so malformed that they should be rejected outright.
When performing input validation, consider all potentially relevant properties, including length, type of input, the full range of acceptable values, missing or extra inputs, syntax, consistency across related fields, and conformance to business rules.
As an example of business rule logic, "boat" may be syntactically valid because it only contains alphanumeric characters, but it is not valid if you are expecting colors such as "red" or "blue.
This will indirectly limit the scope of an attack, but this technique is less important than proper output encoding and escaping.
Note that proper output encoding, escaping, and quoting is the most effective solution for preventing OS command injection, although input validation may provide some defense-in-depth. This is because it effectively limits what will appear in output. Input validation will not always prevent OS command injection, especially if you are required to support free-form text fields that could contain arbitrary characters.
In this case, stripping the character might reduce the risk of OS command injection, but it would produce incorrect behavior because the subject field would not be recorded as the user intended.
This might seem to be a minor inconvenience, but it could be more important when the program relies on well-structured subject lines in order to pass messages to other components.
Even if you make a mistake in your validation such as forgetting one out of input fieldsappropriate encoding is still likely to protect you from injection-based attacks.
As long as it is not done in isolation, input validation is still a useful technique, since it may significantly reduce your attack surface, allow you to detect some attacks, and provide other security benefits that proper encoding does not address. Architecture and Design When the set of acceptable objects, such as filenames or URLs, is limited or known, create a mapping from a set of fixed input values such as numeric IDs to the actual filenames or URLs, and reject all other inputs.The safe, responsible disposal of used computer hard drives is complicated all the bad advice on the Internet.
Because today's technology permits the retrieval of information even from damaged drives, the use of a hammer, blowtorch, pistol, acid bath, etc., in a facility's basement or parking lot is not the way to go. This article outlines the pros and cons of degaussers, shredders, and other.
Although cyberattacks and other forms of computer hacking, such as malware and ransomware, have been the most recognized forms of data breaches to-date, one of the most common HIPAA violations is actually something called social engineering. Computer protection (countermeasures) In computer security a countermeasure is an action, device, procedure, or technique that reduces a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken.
Data integrity can be guarded by a variety of mechanisms. First, by keeping the attackers off of the system holding the information, data has some level of protection. Hardening systems, applying patches and utilizing host- and network-based intrusion-detection systems all help to keep the bad guys away from the data.
Common Core of Data (CCD) Introduction to Physical Security. Most people think about locks, bars, alarms, and uniformed guards when they think about security. and encourage staff to refrain from touching metal and other static-causing agents before using computer equipment.
Protect Output: Keep photocopiers, fax machines. About the Author. Stuart Henderson is an experienced consultant and trainer who specializes in effective IT audits and computer security. He has helped hundreds of organizations make better use of security software such as RACF, ACF2, and TopSecret.